Author Archives: Karel Poirier

How to Move to a Mountain and Snowboard Everyday

So, you’ve decided you really like snowboarding. You’ve been riding at your local resort/hill every chance you get and you want to take it to the next level. You may have just finished school or be in between jobs, whatever the case, you have the winter off and you want to snowboard everyday. Here’s how you do it.

Where to go?

One of the major decisions you’re going to have to make right off the bat is, if you don’t already live in the mountains, where you will move to. This article is assuming you are moving to a ski hill as there are several other options for snowboarding everyday but that is a topic for another for another time.

First off you are going to have to decide if you will be travelling to another country. If you are in a place like Australia, which happens to be host to a lot of travelling snowboarders, you will likely be travelling. That’s not to say there are not ski resorts in Australia. Here’s a list of a few popular countries for snowboarding and what they have to offer.

Canada

Arguably, the best snowboarding in the world. Canada’s cold temperatures and typically wet climate make it a winter wonderland. The peaks of western Canada boast some of the deepest powder on earth and you have lots of great resorts to choose from, all which receive annual snowfall over twelve meters!. The mountain communities of Canada are used to travellers from abroad coming to work and play at their homes so you will find it easy to make friends and meet fellow snowboarders. If you are into going where the action is you might choose to live and work at a resort like Whistler, or Big White. However, if you like things a bit more quiet where the powder stays fresh a little longer you may want to try Whitewater, or Kicking Horse. If you want to go riding in Canada make sure you bundle up because it can get chilly at first but once you are used to the cold you start to crave it, it means better snow conditions!

United States

The US has many great resorts similar to Canada as they exist in what could be called the same mountain ranges (some mountain ranges run through both countries). Being a bit further south, the climate is warmer, although, can be comparable at elevation. There are some big mountains in the western United States that receive annual snowfall also in the 12 meter range. Some of the resorts here see a lot of action due to tourists and a large local population. Jackson Hole is a great place to ride with huge annual snowfall and lots of night life. The resort usually sees over half a million skiers per year! Alta ski resort in Wyoming is a high elevation resort that receives big snowfall and is one of the oldest resorts in the US! There are many great resorts to pick from in the United States if that’s where you choose to ride.

There’s lots of other countries you can move to if you want to snowboard all winter but we won’t get into them in this article, just do a quick Google search of an area that interests you.

Okay so you’ve picked the resort you want to live at now lets talk about some of the other choices you are going to have to make.

How much money will you need?

Ski resorts are expensive places to live, they’re resorts so they have to charge a premium on everything in order to extract as much money as possible from all the tourists and families that visit every year. That doesn’t mean that you can’t be a smart snowboard bum and live on a budget that enables you to ride more fresh powder than most people can dream of. The lifestyle that you choose will ultimately determine how much riding you do. Let’s look at some of the essentials.

Lift Pass

This is the whole reason you are going. If you want to ride lots, you’re going to need a season pass, you have a couple of options. You can buy one for between $750 – $2200, depending on the resort you choose and ride until your heart’s content. You’re other option is to work for the resort. Most places will give you a seasons pass and take payment for it from your paycheque gradually over the course of the season. This is sort of like a payment plan for people who can’t put up the cash and are planning on working while there. The only problem with this option is that if it snows 30 cm and you call in sick to go slash pow, they will suspend your pass for the day and you will be stuck at home while your friends have the time of their lives.

Season Pass = $1000 (common smaller resort pass price)

Housing

You will likely be renting a room in a large chalet or mountain house with a bunch of other travelling snowboarders. This is the only way most people can afford to live full time at a resort as renting your own place can cost several thousand per month. Typical rent for a room in one of these shared houses is around $500 US per month. Some places you will be paying another $50 in utilities so let’s call it $550. Assuming you will staying an entire season you will probably be showing up Mid November and staying until Mid April.

5 months x $550 per month = $2750

Food

Another annoying thing essential to human survival. Food on the mountain is overpriced just like everything else. There are usually small grocery stores but they will set you back about double what you would pay for the same product in the city. If you find a ride down to the city that is close to your mountain you can buy food cheaper there but typically you will be paying resort prices for groceries and if you are eating out much you can say good bye to your funds rather quickly. If you live off cases of instant noodles you can save a lot of money but let’s assume you want to eat a balanced diet while you are breaking down your body, snowboarding everyday. Groceries for a single person will typically run you about $75 per week.

20 weeks x $75 per week = $1500

Going out

Although it doesn’t seem like it, this is likely going to be your biggest expense. You’re living at a resort, people are there to party, not to mention, everyone is transient so people are more willing to step outside their comfort zones. You will be living in a house full of new friends and there will always be something going on. You will have to choose your nights out wisely because this one factor can be the deciding one in how much you have to work to get by instead of slashing fresh pow. A typical night out will cost you about $100 if you do some pre drinking at home and don’t get too fired up. Some weeks you might have two of these nights some weeks, one. Let’s average it out and say 1.5 nights out per week.

30 nights out x $100 per night = $3000

These are just essentials, there are always unexpected costs but this will give you a good idea of what it takes to live at a mountain resort and snowboard everyday.

Total for 5 month season = $8250

Now that we know the numbers we should talk about your two most obvious lifestyle choices since they will be the biggest factor effecting your season. Although not available to everyone, the thing to do that will afford you the most fun and freedom is to save up $10000 to cover all of your expenses and have all the free time to do what you want. That means riding when you want, going out whenever you feel like it and most of all never missing a pow day! When you live at a mountain, it’s all about the powder days. Things can get tracked out quick and it really sucks when it snows and you have to go to work. Watching friends and all the other random people have the time of their lives, while you can’t participate, will give you a burning feeling like no other.

That brings us to your other option, the one most people in your shoes take. Get a temporary job at the resort your moving to. This has it’s perks as well such as meeting people, earning money and perhaps getting to learn a new skill. Not all businesses on the resort land will be part of the resort itself. Although, if you go to work for the resort you won’t have to worry about buying a pass as the resort will provide you with one. Typically this will be on a payment plan that they will automatically take off of your paycheck. Just remember, if you are getting a “free” pass through your job, they will be in complete control. Any powder days that you decide to call in sick will see your pass suspended for the day rendering you unable to ride anyways.

Many of you can’t save up that much money and will be forced to take a job if you want to do something like this. In that case, the job you choose will also play a major roll in how much you get to ride. Night jobs are great because you can ride during the day, if you can get up. You could take a cheap course and become a ski/snowboard instructor; then you would get paid to be on the snow. Only, you wouldn’t be doing what you want to do and hitting the spots you want to hit, you would be teaching mostly beginners the basics all day. Just make sure you choose wisely, some of the best jobs are the least sought after.

How to Increase Your Speed in Volleyball

Volleyball is a game which requires a lot of skill and good reaction time. The extra second it takes for you to get on the ground and bump the ball up could be the difference between losing a set or winning it. In many situations, Volleyball games are extremely close, meaning the sets are played almost point for point. Make an error that could have been easily avoided and you will regret it! There are many ways in which you can improve your speed in Volleyball, and I’d like to share them below.

The first, and most obvious thing to do is practise. The more balls you have hit at you the faster you will be able to react. If you are finding you still take too long to decide whether to bump or set the ball, you need more practice. It’s just a matter of dedicating that time to practice, and you will increase in leaps and bounds.

One of the biggest problems I see regularly is the position that players stand in. In Volleyball, they often call it the ‘ready’ position, because you have the best posture for moving at the blink of an eye. Try this little experiment – stand up straight and put the weight on the rear of your feet, and have someone yell go when you aren’t expecting it. Time how long it takes you to move to a set position, whether that be forward, to the side or backwards.

Next, try the same experiment but instead of putting the weight on the rear of your feet, stand on your toes and lean forward. You will notice that you can move much quicker. Even better than this, you should be standing crouched down a little bit, with your feet spread apart and the majority of your body weight on the front of your feet. Have a look at the professionals – they all stand with the weight forward so that they can react within the shortest time.

You will find that the more time you spend leaning forward the better your posture is, and the more comfortable you become. I guarantee with practice and the correct ‘ready’ position you will be able to move considerably faster than any other technique. Most of all, don’t give up. Everyone can react quickly with the right training, and its just a matter of getting to the stage where it is second nature!

How Volleyball Is Played

Compared to other team sports, volleyball may involve less physical contact but it is still a challenging sport for the reason that the game entails constant motion. Being purely a rebound sport, no player can hold the ball but can only pass, set, hit, spike or block the ball.

The court

Volleyball is played by two teams on a court which is divided crosswise by a net. The offensive goal of each team is to send the ball – without holding the ball — in such a way that it lands on the ground of the opposing team.

The players

Each team consists of 6 players who must rotate in a clockwise position every time the team wins back service time. Three players are at the net positions and the other three are at the back. Only the players at the net can block or spike near the net. Those at the back court can also block or spike provided that they jump from behind the three-meter-line, also known as the attack line.

The starting line-up usually includes such specialists as the setter, two center-line backers, two receiver-hitters and what is known as a universal spiker. In 1998, the International Federation of Volleyball introduced a new specialist player position called the libero who is the only one that does not take part in rotation.

The libero serves a critical role in receiving service and playing defense in the backcourt. Although he cannot serve, spike or rotate into the frontline, he holds the key to making his team run a successful offense by a combination of excellent passing and ball-handling.

Scoring

Volleyball has adopted since 1998 a standard scoring system known as the Rally Point System which allows a team to score a point regardless of whichever of the two teams is serving. This is unlike the traditional scoring system in which only the team at service can score.

The ball is hurled into play by a service. Each team is allowed only 3 hits in the service reception. The ball is volleyed back and forth in what is known as a rally. The rally goes on until the ball gets grounded on the playing court, goes out of the court or is not returned properly. Whoever wins a rally scores a point.

A receiving team which wins a rally not only gains a point but also wins the right to serve and the opportunity to rotate clockwise.

Matches

Matches are staged via best-of-five sets. The first four sets are all played to 25 points while the last or fifth set is played to only 15 points. A team wins a set if he out scores the opponent by at least 2 points. As there is no ceiling point, a set continues until a team wins by 2 points.

Uniform

During the early years of volleyball, the usual attire consists of baggy shirts and shorts. Today, volleyball uniforms are less baggy and more formal-looking. Shirts could either be sleeveless, short-sleeved or long-sleeved and paired with either trousers or shorts. Players also wear volleyball shoes.

Quick Strategies To Improve Your Bowling Game

It may be hard to believe, but there is considerably more to bowling than tossing a ball down the lane to take out the pins at the end. It takes technique and skill to bowl a good game, and any fan of bowling will tell you this. So how do you improve your game? You can become a much better bowler by following a few tips.

Making sure that you have a good grip on your ball is very important. A bad grip will lead to loss of control when trying to release the ball after your approach. You could end up throwing it into the air and never touching the lane – also known as lofting. The ball could end up flying way from the lane by accident. You could end up injured! If you want to have a good grip on your ball you need to make sure that the holes are the perfect size, not too big and not too small. It is important that you are comfortable with the weight of your ball as it is a critical factor. Insert tape is placed on the thumb holes by certain players. The tape allows your thumb a better grip as it features a textured surface. Having something textured to hold on to as you bowl can really help you improve the control you have over the ball itself.

Believe it or not, one important factor in your bowling score is your overall level of fitness. This means that if you bowl regularly, it’s a good idea to work at getting and staying in good physical shape. Many beginners at bowling overlook this fact. There is little doubt that bowling utilizes the muscles of the upper body. Lower body strength also plays a crucial role in your bowling game. If you let your physical health slide you will throw your entire game out of whack. Going to the fitness center regularly is not only good for your health, but for your bowling score.

How much power you put behind the ball is also an important factor. Many individuals use a lot of strength when they throw the bowling ball. But some just put a little strength behind their toss and get the results they want. Many people find they have better control of how the ball travels if they don’t heft it very hard. There are a lot of different techniques to master as you learn how to become a great bowler. It is important to remember to keep trying. If you let yourself get psyched out, you could adversely affect your performance. Always remember to keep a positive outlook and to remember that practice can, indeed, make perfect-especially as you are learning to be a better bowler.

Quick Ideas For a Better Bowling Game

Anybody can master the techniques to take their bowling to an amazing level. There are a lot of different tips and techniques that you can put into practice to help you improve your score. Bowling is an entertaining hobby for every age, making it an ideal family pastime. The whole purpose is to have fun but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try to improve your game by using various methods. Improving your score will only mean that you will have even more fun when you go out bowling again! A high score when the game ends is the ultimate satisfaction.

One thing new bowlers in particular should learn is to keep their bowling arm as relaxed as possible. Having too much tension when you bowl can both lower your score and make injuries more likely. It’s especially important that your thumb stay relaxed when you grip the ball. If your thumb doesn’t fit well into the thumb hole of your bowling ball you won’t have a proper grip. If your grip is too tense or not comfortable you’re likely to use more force than is necessary when you release the ball. This, in turn, causes you to lose control and your ball will not end up where you want it. You could send it flying right into the gutter!

The ideal way to get a straight throw on your ball is to hold it so your palm is facing up beneath the ball. Ideally, your grip on the ball should be as though you slid your hand beneath it and lifted it up from there. With your ball positioned, swing your arm and release the ball, making sure your arm is aimed toward the pins you want to knock down. You can help to stop your ball curving this way. However, if you want the ball to curve a little then you’ll need to tilt your hand slightly until your thumb is almost pointed toward you on the side. Using this technique can help you send your ball in a bit of an arc to reach a specific target. If you’ve noticed that your aim is sometimes off to the left or right, then you can use this curve to correct your aim and make it easier to hit the center pin more often.

You can gently and slightly twist your fingers during release, and this will help the ball gently curve away from the gutter. You can ‘steer’ your ball into the pin center by putting some ‘hook’ into it. That’s what you’re doing with the slight finger twist. Be careful not to put too much of a twist on your release or you will just send your ball hurtling toward the other lane gutter. Becoming an expert bowler involves much more than this, though. Always remember to keep at it. You can prevent frustration from affecting your scores just by relaxing and going with the flow. Consistent practice and keeping a positive mental approach will always do wonders for your game. Persistence pays off eventually.

Picking the Best Bowling Balls

If you enjoy bowling and have a desire to optimize your performance, it is important that you learn the steps that are involved when it comes to picking the best bowling balls. Not only can having the right ball ultimately improve your overall score, it will allow you the capability of consistently achieving a certain score. Despite the fact that it may appear simple to choose a ball for bowling, many new players often discover that it is a relatively challenging task that requires patience, a working knowledge of the game as well as the mechanics of the game, and a bit of time. In this guide, you will learn the top steps involved in picking the best bowling balls.

Ball Weight

When choosing a bowling ball, the first consideration that needs to be made is the actual weight of the ball. There are many different weights that you may choose from. As a general rule, it is always best to choose balls that are no heavier than a total of ten percent of the actual body weight that you have as an individual. You should never attempt to play serious bowling game with a ball that exceeds sixteen pounds. The secret is to consider how much weight you will be comfortable when it comes to the process of throwing the ball during game play. You should never allow yourself to feel pressured to play with a heavy ball simply because of the fact that others play with a heavier ball.

Choosing a Type of Cover Stock

When picking the best bowling balls, it is important to ensure that you are familiar with all of the options that you have. This means that you should know what cover stock is and you should learn what your options are when it comes to cover stock. This stock type is the material that is located on the outermost surface of the bowling ball. Typically, there are four individual types of stock that you may invest in. These include particle, plastic, reactive resin, as well as urethane. You should learn as much as you possibly can regarding these types of stocks and you should also learn the mechanics of the stock when it comes to direct contact in the lanes that you will be playing with. This will allow you to know which types of cover stock are appropriate when it comes to your game play style and your overall bowling and mechanic expertise.

Custom Fitting

If you want to optimize your success in bowling by improving your overall score, it is important to consider getting a bowling ball that can be custom fitted to your hand. All too often players choose general balls that simply are not appropriate for their personal playing style as well as the shape and contours associated with their fingers and their hand in general. If you get your ball fitted, you will find that it is easier to handle and easier to throw. If you follow the tips outlined in this guide, picking the right bowling balls will be a simple task.

Panama Fishing – Coiba Island & Hannibal Banks

Coiba Island

Located off the Pacific Coast of Panama, Coiba Island is part of the province of Veraguas and the district of Montijo. At 503 square kilometers (194 square miles), Coiba Island is the largest island in all of Central America.

Coiba was originally home to the Cacique Indian tribe until Spanish settlement and conquest circa 1560. The island remained largely uninhabited until 1919, when authorities built a penal colony on the island. The colony was known and feared for its brutality and was finally closed in 2004. The entire island was declared a national park in 1992. In 2005, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared Coiba Island a world heritage site.

Coiba’s isolation and lack of development has led to the evolution of distinct species of flora and fauna. Subspecies unique to the island include the Coiba Island howler monkey, the Coiba agouti and the Coiba spinetail. It is also a haven for the scarlet macaw, a bird species endangered in the rest of Panama.

Coiba also has a unique ocean topography that has led to population by rare species of fish and underwater mammals. Coiba is linked to the Galápagos Islands by the underwater Coco Ridge mountain chain. This protects the island and the surrounding waters from the effects of El Nino. As a result, the waters host several species yet to be discovered or classified by humankind. To date, scientists have found more than 760 different species of fish, including Snapper, Amberjack, Barracuda and three types of Marlin.

Fishing Coiba Island an angler’s dream. The waters host abundant schools of some of the most exotic game fish in the world. If you decide to fish in Coiba while in Panama, there’s a good chance you will catch something that you have never seen before. Roosterfish, Cubera snapper, Wahoo, Snook and Pacific Tarpon are some of the species that you can catch when you fish Coiba. You also can find plenty of the staples of sport fishing like Black Marlin and Yellowfin Tuna. Fishing Coiba is a Panama experience that you won’t forget.

Hannibal Banks

Hannibal Banks is a sea-mount located approximately 20 miles west of Coiba Island. It was named after the USS Hannibal, a converted steamship purchased by the United States Navy. The ship’s crew discovered the banks in 1914 while doing survey work for the Panama Canal.

The Hannibal Banks rise sharply from the ocean floor from several thousand feet to just over a hundred feet deep. This creates a strong “up-welling” of the ocean currents which results in cooler, deeper and more nutrient-rich water replacing the surface water. The constant replenishment of the water with nutrients attracts smaller baitfish. The baitfish, in turn, attract large numbers of sport trophy fish.

The abundance of these big game fish makes the Hannibal Banks one of the most popular sport fishing destinations in the Western Hemisphere. Commercial fishing is strictly prohibited, and the Panamanian military takes aggressive enforcement against violators. Most of the Panama sport fishing charters cooperate with the government by reporting any illegal activity. As a result, the Hannibal Banks maintains its abundant supply of sport fish despite the fact that fishing in Hannibal Banks has become more popular over the past twenty years.

If you are looking for big game such as Marlin, Sailfish or Yellowfin Tuna, the Hannibal Banks is a mecca for these fish. The months of December through April are when these fish are at their peak, but the Hannibal Banks is sufficiently populated that you can still get a great catch during the off season. “Fishing season” is a relative term here, with abundant supply year round.

How to Measure and Release Fish Correctly

Many people approach measuring fish with a relaxed approach and risk hefty fines, particularly if the fish is borderline size. There is no grey area when it comes to legal size of catch. Even the difference of 1cm can have you in trouble, and is just not worth the risk of a fine.

Sustainability needs to be taken very seriously, hence Fisheries have very clear guidelines. Sustainable fishing means that fish are harvested at a sustainable rate, so the fish population does not decline over time due to poor fishing practices. Imagine a world that is over-harvested and the corresponding devastation to the eco-system and to our future generations. It is the responsibility of each and every one of us to do our bit to protect the planet.

Size limits are typically based on biological research into the reproductive cycle of each species. Minimum size limits generally allow fish to spawn at least once and contribute to the population before they are taken.

The biggest mistake when measuring the length of your catch is where people don’t use a flat surface to measure the fish on. Ensure that if you use a mat, that it is not crumpled causing you to potentially overestimate the size of the fish. Adhesive or stick-on devices, when exposed to the weather, can shrink and become unreliable. Using a solid measuring implement is the best way.

As fish tend to contract if placed on ice, err on the side of caution and allow an extra inch at the initial measure.

Close the jaw of the fish to ensure an accurate reading. The overall measurement of a fish, whether it is fork tailed or round tailed, is taken from the outside of the snout on the upper jaw, to the extreme tip of the tail.

Your State Fisheries website will likely have an outline on how to measure an array of sea life e.g. crabs and squid as well as fish, so it might be worthwhile printing out a copy and keeping it in your tackle box for reference.

To assist in survival of your catch, avoid holding the belly area as you will almost certainly damage internal organs, which reduces chances of survival dramatically.

Never touch the fish’s gills as they are easily damaged.

Use a pair of long-nosed pliers, or a purpose made hook-release to quickly and efficiently remove the hook. If the fish has hooked deeply, cut the line as close to the hook as possible and leave the hook in the fish as it will probably do more damage trying to remove a deep hook than to leave it where it is.

How to Find the Sweet Spot to Fish In

How to Find large Fish!

Everyone wonders when on the lake, where should I look for that monster fish? Why am I not finding the fish worth catching? These are just the basic questions a person might have about fishing that have and will always have a common answer. Going beyond the common answer to “How to Find Large Fish”.

How to Find large fish based on location!

Location plays a major role from what lake to fish to area of that lake to scour looking for the record setter. Looking for the largest fish in a lake is or may seem complex it really is quite simple mostly common sense. look at the lake the surrounds of this lake, has the habitat been well nourished by nature or has nature written it off? Theses questions will help to identify if the fish have been well taken care of or neglected by nature. A fertile lake will yield better fishing results than that of a sickly lake.

Identifying Areas to fish on the lake!

When you launch your boat or pick a place from shore to fish look for the wind direction if any, and structure piles such as fallen trees and rock piles fallen piers and boat docks. These are great areas to fish alone and most of the time will have great results.Observe the water do you see bait-fish? or any other fish in the area this can tell you if the fish are staying in one area or are on the move and if you will have to anchor or drift to learn how to find large fish.

Bait!

A lot of time people will try to fish with these little baits to try and catch monster fish, when learning how to find large fish you have to understand that large fish are hungry for large food, also it take a lot of energy for a giant fish to move and any movement will need to be worth it to them at the same time that is why they are so difficult to catch. So to sum it up be sure to use worth while bait for that monster.

Electronics!

In today’s world there are a lot of gadgets out there to show you how to find large fish some of these work some do not careful what you buy they have a product to sell and the claims made may not be 100% accurate. Stick close to name brand items these will have the best results and help you to land more fish.

Serving Up Volleyball Drills

Sometimes, as a coach, the hardest volleyball drills to come up with are for serving. Serving takes strength, as well as precision, as well as being prepared for what may happen on the return. A good serve, however, can make all the difference in the world when your team is in a game. The serve often sets the pace of the whole volley and can cause your opponents to tremble in fear. Who wants to be on the receiving end of a well-placed serve that is designed to cause the hitter to completely mess up the return? These volleyball drills will help your team learn control, reaction, and precision when it comes to the serve.

When serving, it is important to have good precision. Good volleyball drills will help hone this precision so that it becomes an almost automatic thing. In this first drill, each player should be behind the serving line with two balls. They will serve so the ball lands within the court. The players can serve as quickly as they like, so long as they cause the ball to land in the proper area. For each ball that lands out of the court, the team earns a penalty of 10 points. If the team reaches a set score, they begin accumulating conditioning penalties. These conditioning penalties are up to you, and you can set the levels, but you want to make it unpleasant to miss. For example, if the team accumulates 20 to 40 points, they could do leg lifts, while if they get over 40 points, they start wracking up suicides. After a player serves their two balls, they should jog after their balls and then jog them back. This combines several volleyball drills into a single drill.

There are more precision volleyball drills that you can implement also. A really good precision drill involves a pair of people. The coach picks a spot on the receiving court. A player sits on that point. The server must then serve the ball directly to that player. This drill works on a point system also. For each ball that is served directly to the sitting player, the server gains 1 point. If the serve lands inside of the court, the server gains 1 point. Any serve that lands outside of the court earns the server a penalty of 4 points. Keep a running total of the score. Once a player has either 10 negative or positive points, their turn is over. If the server has earned a total of 10 negative points, they are subject to conditioning penalties. A score of positive 10 earns a reprieve. Incorporating conditioning penalties into your volleyball drills is a great way to motivate your team to do as well as they can.

All forms of hitting in the game of volleyball require at least a degree of ball control. No other types of hitting need as much precision as serving. Working on volleyball drills that stress the importance of aiming the ball when serving will help your players understand the dynamics of pinpoint accuracy. They help your players become familiar with the body motions required to achieve that accuracy. And in the end, that is the main thrust of volleyball drills in the first place: to make difficult moves and situations a set of automatic movements.